All the “Transformer” series fans would agree that we have fascinated Robots at some point in our lives. What if Robots could be developed from day today stuff? Isn’t that something that excites more? A team of engineers from Harvard’s Wyss Institute, Harvard’s SEAS, and MIT built an autonomous robot that starts out as a single composite sheet programmed to fold itself into a complex shape and crawl away without any human intervention.
The design is inspired from Origami, the art to create something useful by folding in different shapes to create something useful with a single paper sheet. This team used little more than paper and Shrinky Dinks – the classic children’s toy that shrinks when heated – to build a robot that assembles itself into a complex shape in four minutes flat, and crawls away without any human intervention. The development demonstrates the potential to quickly and cheaply build sophisticated machines that interact with the environment, and to automate much of the design and assembly process. The method draws inspiration from self-assembly in nature, such as the way linear sequences of amino acids fold into complex proteins with sophisticated functions.
Senior author Rob Wood, Ph.D., a Core Faculty member at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and the Charles River Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) said
“Getting a robot to assemble itself autonomously and actually perform a function has been a milestone we’ve been chasing for many years”.
The new robot is the first that builds itself and performs a function without human intervention.
“Here we created a full electromechanical system that was embedded into one flat sheet,” Felton said. The team used computer design tools to inform the optimal design and fold pattern — and after about 40 prototypes, Felton honed in on the one that could fold itself up and walk away. He fabricated the sheet using a solid ink printer, a laser machine, and his hands.
The refined design only took about two hours to assemble using a method that relies upon the power of origami, the ancient Japanese art whereby a single sheet of paper can be folded into complex structures. The origami-inspired approach enabled the team to avoid the traditional “nuts and bolts” approach to assembling complex machines.
They started with a flat sheet, to which they added two motors, two batteries, and a microcontroller — which acts like the robot’s “brain,” Felton said.
The sheet was a composite of paper and Shrinky dinks™, which is also called polystyrene – and a single flexible circuit board in the middle. It also included hinges that were programmed to fold at specific angles. Each hinge contained embedded circuits that produce heat on command from the microcontroller. The heat triggers the composite to self-fold in a series of steps.
When the hinges cool after about four minutes, the polystyrene hardens – making the robot stiff and the microncontroller then signals the robot to crawl away at a speed of about one-tenth of a mile per hour. The entire event consumed about the same amount of energy in one AA alkaline battery.
The current robot operates on a timer, waiting about ten seconds after the batteries are installed to begin folding. However, “we could easily modify this such that the folding is triggered by an environmental sensor, such as temperature or pressure,” Felton said.